李仙得(Charles William LeGendre, 1830.08.26 - 1899.09.01)生平 by Samuel Stephenson/雲程譯 st1\00003a*{}table.MsoNormalTable {font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman";}st1\00003a*{}table.MsoNormalTable {font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman";}【Remark】 北投埔前輩,怕我老花太淺,又派我作業。做是做完了,俺不幹了。 李仙得(Charles William LeGendre, 1830.08.26 - 1899.09.01)生平  by Samuel Stephenson/雲程譯 查爾斯威廉李仙得(Charles William Le Gendre)出生在1830年8月26日法國的Ouillins,父親為Jean Francois,母親為瓦布勒(Wable)的Aricie Louise Marie Gertrude。據說他的家人相當重要。李仙得曾就讀於皇家學院蘭斯(the Royal College of Rheims),但他最終畢業於巴黎大學。1854年10月31日他21歲時在比利時布魯塞爾娶了Clara Victoria Mulock為妻,其父親為紐約著名律師William,母親為Marie Guilbert Mulock。他們結婚後不久,李仙得搬到美國,並成為歸化公民。(1) 隨著內戰爆發,美國在1861年,李仙得加入美軍。起初,他幫助招募紐約第51志願步兵團(北方聯盟BurnsideOs將軍海岸師下屬的團部),並在1861年10月29日擔任該步兵團的少校。李仙得參加了北卡羅萊納州戰役,並於 1862年奪取羅諾克島(Roanoke Island)。當時,他是第51步兵團佔缺的中校羅伯特 B PotterOs下的少校。(2)美國政府褒揚李仙得的行動與戰役。然而,他在1862年3月14日北卡羅來納州新伯爾尼(New Bern, North Carolina)戰鬥中下顎和脊髓中彈受重傷。李仙得被引為表揚為「最突出的勇氣,直到他跌倒受傷為止」。(3) 儘管受重傷,李仙得繼續服役並在1862年9月20日晉升為中校。1863年,他被指派到第九軍團加入許多場戰役,1863年3月14日他被晉升為上校。1864年5月6日在維吉尼亞州野地(the Wilderness in Virginia)的葛蘭特將軍麾下的第二次戰役,李仙得再次中彈左眼和鼻樑受重傷(4)在其時,最後馬里蘭州安那波利斯(Annapolis, Maryland)南方邦聯李將軍的軍隊的突擊時,李仙得雖然住院仍指揮軍隊防禦城市(5)。在1864年的兩個月中,李仙得被任命為紐約州招募第九軍團的職務(6)。1864年10月4日李仙得終 酒店經紀於光榮退役(7)1865年3月13日並進一步獲得準將以表彰其功勳(the brevet title of brigadier general for meritorious service)。(8) 1866年7月13日,李仙得被任命為美國駐廈門領事。他1866年7月離開紐約前往利物浦,並從陸路通過歐洲和亞洲,最終在1866年12月抵達廈門。李仙得領事管轄五個港口城市:廈門,基隆,台灣府,淡水和高雄。(9) 李仙得很快的進入情況,在1867年年初與處女號(La Vierge)有關非法苦力貿易(一種常見的做法在中國南部的港口城市)的案件中,展現他的果斷行事。(10) 1867年3月12日因美國船舶羅發號(the Rover)觸礁失事後倖存的船員被原住民殺害,李仙得很快前往福州。1867年4月2日抵達後,說服福建和浙江的總督進行干預,並對中國當局施加壓力以解決台灣問題。(11)福建總督批准了李仙得親自去台灣,並為他寫了介紹信給福爾摩沙知府,要求他與李仙得合作,但補充說:「如果領事自己採取措施的話,請告訴他不要這樣做,因為這些野蠻人可能給他比想像還更多的麻煩(if the consul takes measures to manage the case himself, please invite him not to do so, for these savages might give him more trouble that he thinks.)」。(12) 為了造訪觸礁現場以及搭載台灣府的外國官員,李仙得委任美國汽船亞士維拉號(the Ashuelot)與船長 Febriger。4月18日他抵達台灣府。隨後美國海軍少將貝爾(Rear Admiral Bell)懲罰性遠征的失敗後,李仙得再回到台灣。這一次沒有知會其上司。在台灣期間,他表明美國領事的權力,選擇了一位副領事駐在台灣北部,參觀了基隆的煤礦,並從美國的商人處收集資料。(13) 在返回到南中國,李仙得設法說服總督在福州派軍隊到台灣南部。1867年7月25日派出的支部隊,規模遠比李仙得所推薦的400至500名士兵少。然後,李仙得親自要求貝爾上將派出砲艦,被他拒絕,最終成功地委託志願者。1867年9月4日(14)他前往台灣,他告訴他的上司說:「我去那裡只是作為一個旁觀者…,…我沒有中國軍隊的管轄權。」(15) 在深入南部台灣原住民土地(其中一些需要大量的公路建設)長期而艱鉅的行軍過程中,李仙得很快由劉將軍 酒店經紀手中承擔了「事實上的指揮權」(de facto command)。然後,William A. Pickering與James Horn援助下,李仙得與卓杞篤(Tauketok)談成一項保障美國和歐洲的水手遇船難者安全的有效條約,卓杞篤是羅發號(the Rover)觸礁當地18個原住民部落的酋長。(16) 1871年9月6日離開日本船隻在福爾摩沙海岸觸礁,船員被Boutans殺害。1872年2月29日,李仙得前往台灣企圖與卓杞篤簽署條約,將條約範圍也擴及日本船員。然而,這項任務並不成功的。最後,李仙得與一位美國派駐北京的美國閣員劉先生鬧翻。(17) 同年晚些時候,李仙從廈門借道日本前往美國,並被要求參加日本外交部門。經過一番辯論後,李仙得辭去他美國領事的職位。1872年12月12日成為天皇遠征台灣計劃的顧問,年薪12 000美元,他是第一個受僱於日本政府的外國人。(18)【存疑,因為更早就有很多外國人在日本,1868佛蘭西在海軍在橫須賀造船廠當顧問】 身為第二階官職的外交官員,李仙得在1872年12月參加一個日本外務大臣副島種臣(1828年至1905年)率領的外交使團前往北京。與北京談判的會議只有部分成功,李仙得被選為親自協助1874年的遠征台灣。不過,因為美國總領事以李仙得離職守,在上海關了李仙得短暫的時間,從而李仙得實際上並未隨遠征軍到台灣。雖然最終的任務較具爭議性,李仙得在1874年7月獲得「勳二等旭日重光章」以表彰其貢獻。包括外國人或日本人在內,他是第一個獲得日本天皇此一勳章的人。他在同年退休。(19) 李仙得留在日本直到1890年,他以私人身份幫忙日本進步黨黨魁大隈重信(1838年至1922年)。(20)在1890年3月,他離開日本,受命為朝鮮議政府?(the Korean Home Office)的副議政?。當法官O.N.丹尼的辭職後,李仙得成為朝鮮國王宮內省?顧問。他保持此一職位直到1899年9月1日他在漢城中風去世為止。(21) Charles William LeGendre 26 August 1830 - 1 September 1899 By Samuel Stephenson (Edited by Douglas Fix) Charles William Le Gendre was born to Jean Francois and Aricie Louise Marie Gertrude (Wable) Le Gendre on 26 August 1830 in Ouillins , France . His 租房子family is said to have been well connected and important. Le Gendre was educated at the Royal College of Rheims, but he eventually graduated from the University of Paris . At the age of 21, he married Clara Victoria Mulock, daughter of William (a well known New York lawyer) and Marie Guilbert Mulock, on 31 October 1854 in Brussells , Belgium . Soon after their marriage, Le Gendre moved to the United States and became a naturalized citizen.(1) With the outbreak of the Civil War in the United States in 1861, Le Gendre became involved in the U.S. military. Initially, he helped recruit the 51st New York Volunteer Infantry (a segment of the Union ranks attached to General BurnsideOs coast division), and was commissioned a major of that regiment on 29 October 1861. Le Gendre participated in the campaign of North Carolina , and was present at the capture of Roanoke Island in 1862. At the time, he was a major in Lieutenant Colonel (later General) Robert B. PotterOs 51st Regiment Infantry.(2) Le Gendre received positive recognition from United States officials and generals for his actions in the latter conflict. However, he was badly wounded at the battle of New Bern , North Carolina on 14 March 1862, "a ball injuring both the corner of the jaw and the spinal process." Le Gendre was cited for displaying "most conspicuous courage until he fell wounded."(3) Despite this grievous injury, Le Gendre continued in the service and was promoted to lieutenant colonel on 20 September 1862. In 1863, he was attached to the 9th army corps, with which he made numerous campaigns; he was promoted to colonel on 14 March 1863. At the second battle of the Wilderness in Virginia on 6 May 1864, while serving under General Grant, Le Gendre was again severely injured "by a rifle ball that carried away 買屋網both his left eye and the bridge of the nose."(4) At the time of the last raid by General Lee's Confederate army of Annapolis, Maryland, Le Gendre, though still hospitalized, was detailed to organize the defense of the city.(5) At some point during 1864, Le Gendre was appointed chief of the recruiting service for the 9th army corps in New York State and served in this capacity for two months.(6) Le Gendre was finally honorably discharged on 4 October 1864,(7) and was further given on 13 March 1865.(8) On 13 July 1866 Le Gendre was appointed to be American consul at Amoy , China . He left New York for Liverpool in July 1866 and took an overland route through Europe and Asia, eventually arriving in Amoy in December of 1866. As consul, Le Gendre was in control of five port cities: Amoy, Keelung , Taiwanfoo, Tamsui, and Takao.(9) Le Gendre was quickly called upon to use his authority, which he exercised decisively, in a case of illegal coolie trade (a common practice in southern Chinese port cities) associated with in early 1867.(10) Following the wreck of the United States ship the Rover on 12 March 1867 and the subsequent killing of the surviving crew by aborigines, Le Gendre quickly traveled to Foochow, arriving on 2 April 1867, to persuade the governor generals of Fukien and Chekiang to intervene and put pressure on the Chinese authorities in Formosa to resolve the issue.(11) The governor general of Fukien gave Le Gendre permission to go to Formosa himself, and wrote him a letter of introduction to take to the prefect of Formosa, asking him to cooperate with Le Gendre, but adding that "if the consul takes measures to manage the case himself, please invite him not to do so, for these savages might give him more trouble that he thinks."(12) Le Gendre commissioned the United States steamer 景觀設計Ashuelot, under the command of Captain Febriger, in order to visit the scene of the wreck and to try (unsuccessfully) to get foreign officials in Taiwanfoo (where he arrived on 18 April) to act. After a subsequent failed punitive expedition carried out by Rear Admiral Bell of the United States navy, Le Gendre again returned to Formosa -- this time without any reference to his superiors. While in Formosa , he asserted United States consular authority, selected a deputy consul in north Taiwan , visited the Keelung mines, and gathered information from United States merchants.(13) Upon return to south China , Le Gendre managed to persuade the governor general in Foochow to send a military force to southern Formosa . The force, significantly smaller than the 400 to 500 soldiers recommended by Le Gendre, was dispatched on 25 July 1867. Le Gendre then personally requested a gunboat from Admiral Bell, which he was denied, and eventually managed to commission the Volunteer. He embarked for Formosa on 4 September 1867,(14) telling his superiors that "I am going there as a mere spectator. . . . I have no jurisdiction over the Chinese forces."(15) Le Gendre quickly assumed de facto command of the mission from General Liu in the course of a long and difficult march into deep aboriginal lands in southern Formosa (some of which required extensive road construction). Then, with the aid of William A. Pickering and James Horn, Le Gendre negotiated an effective treaty guaranteeing the safety of shipwrecked American and European sailors with Tauketok, the chief of 18 aboriginal tribes in the area when the Rover has gone ashore.(16) On 6 September 1871 a Japanese ship wrecked off the coast of Formosa and the crew were murdered by Boutans. On 29 February 1872, Le Gendre left for Formosa to attempt to get the treaty with Tauketok ex 租屋tended to cover Japanese sailors as well. However, this mission was largely unsuccessful, and as a result, Le Gendre had a falling out with United States Minister to Peking , Mr. Low.(17) Later that same year, Le Gendre stopped off in Japan en route to the United States from Amoy , and was asked to join the Japanese foreign service. After some debate, Le Gendre resigned from his post as United States consul on 12 December 1872 and entered the service of the Emperor of Japan at $12,000 per year as an advisor to a planned expedition to Formosa , becoming the first foreigner employed in a Japanese government post.(18) Serving in the capacity of second-grade foreign service official, Le Gendre participated in a diplomatic mission to Peking , headed by Japanese Foreign Minister Soejima Taneomi (1828-1905), in December 1872. After meeting with only partial success in negotiations with Peking, Le Gendre was chosen to personally assist the expedition to Formosa in 1874. However, Le Gendre was unexpectedly imprisoned for a brief time at Shanghai on the orders of the United States consul-general for deserting the service, and thus never actually made it to Formosa . Although the mission was eventually more controversial than successful, Le Gendre received the decoration of the second class of merit (Order of the Rising Sun) for his service in July 1874, becoming the first among either foreigners or Japanese to be admitted into the Order after its institution by the Emperor of Japan. He retired later that same year.(19) Le Gendre remained in Japan until 1890, working in a private capacity for Okuma, Shigenobu (1838-1922), a political party leader.(20) In March 1890 he left Japan to take up an appointment as the vice-president of the Korean Home Office. Upon Judge O.N. Denny's resignation later that year, Le Gendre became adviser 澎湖民宿to the household department of the King of Korea, holding that position until his death of apoplexy in Seoul on 1 September 1899.(21) Selected Publications:(22) "Amoy," " Island of Formosa : Ports of Takao and Taiwanfoo," and " Formosa ." Pp. 49-71, 85 -109 in A report on the commercial relations of the United States and foreign nations, for the year ending September 30, 1869. Washington : Government Printing Office, 1871. [Executive document No. 18, Executive documents printed by order of the House of Representatives, 41st Congress, Third Session, 1870-71.]. " Amoy ." Pp. 430 -35 in A report on the commercial relations of the United States with foreign nations for the year ending September 30, 1870. Washington : Government Printing Office, 1871. [Supplement to Executive document No. 93, Executive documents printed by order of the House of Representatives, 41st Congress, Third Session, 1870-71.] Reports on Amoy and the island of Formosa. Washington : Government Printing Office, 1871. How to Deal with China. Amoy , 1871. (Report prepared for Mr. Keim, special agent of the United States government, upon various questions of interest.) Pp. 110-168 of Annual report on the commercial relations between the United States and foreign nations, made by the Secretary of State, for the year ending September 30, 1871. Washington : Government Printing Office, 1872. "Annual report on the trade of the Amoy district for the year ending 30th September, 1871." Pp. 169-204 of Annual report on the commercial relations between the United States and foreign nations, made by the Secretary of State, for the year ending September 30, 1871. Washington : Government Printing Office, 1872. Is aboriginal Formosa a part of the Chinese empire? Shanghai: Lane, Crawford, 1874. Progressive Japan : A study of the political and social needs of the empire. New York and 景觀設計 Yokohama : C. Levy, 1878. Les courants humains, ou la circulation du sang de l'homme et de la civilisation a la surface de la terre [The human current, or the circulation of the blood of man and civilization on the surface of the earth]. 42 vols. Le Gendre papers, Library of Congress, Boxes 6 - 13. Honors and Memberships: The decoration of the second class of merit (Rising Sun, 1874).(23) Notes: 1. Yen, Sophia Su-fei, Taiwan in ChinaOs foreign relations 1836-1874 (Hamden, CT: Shoe String Press, 1965), p. 148; The Far East (October, 1877): 87; Shavit, David, The United States in Asia (New York: Greenwood Press, 1990), p. 300; Dictionary of American biography, D. Malone, ed. (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1960), p. 145. The sources used by the last source include: War of the rebellion: Official records (U.S. Army); the files of the Adjutant-GeneralOs Office, the War Department, and the Pension Office; Foreign Relations of the United States(1873); T. Dennet, Americans in Eastern Asia (1922); and the N.Y. Tribune (3 September 1899). 2. That is most likely the very same infantry division that he initially recruited for and joined. The names of the two divisions are given by different sources: The former is to be found in Dictionary of American biography, p. 145; and the latter in The Far East (1877): 87. 3. Dictionary of American biography, p. 145; The Far East (1877): 87. 4. The Far East (1877): 87. 5. Dictionary of American biography, p. 145; The Far East (1877): 87. 6. The Far East (1877): 87. 7. The Far East (1877): 88 states that Le Gendre was discharged under certificate of full disability in 1865, while Yen 1965, p. 148, claims that he was honorably discharged in May 1865. Here I accept the date and reason of discharge given by Dictionary of American Biography, p. 145. 8. Dictionary of American biography, p. 145; Yen 196 關鍵字行銷5, p. 148. 9. Dictionary of American biography, p. 145; Yen 1965, p. 148; The Far East (1877): 88. 10. The Far East (1877): 88. 11. Yen 1965, pp. 126-127; Carrington , George Williams, Foreigners in Formosa 1841-1874 (San Francisco: Chinese Materials Center, 1978), p. 153; Dictionary of American Biography, p. 146; The Far East (1877): 88. 12. U.S., National Archives, Record Group 59, "Consular despatches, Amoy ," vol. 3 (microfilm no. 100, roll 3), enclosure, "Intendant of Circuit of Foochow to the Prefect of Formosa," translation from the USNA and USDC; as quoted in Yen 1965, p. 127. 13. Carrington 1978, pp. 154, 159; Dictionary of American biography, p. 146; The Far East (1877): 88. 14. Yen 1965, pp. 127-148; Carrington 1978, p. 160; The Far East 1877, pp. 88-89. 15. U.S., National Archives, Record Group 59, "Consular despatches, Amoy," vol. 3 (microfilm no. 100, roll 3), Le Gendre to Bell , 30 July 1867; as quoted in Carrington 1978, p. 160. 16. Yen 1965, pp. 149-53; Carrington 1978, pp. 133, 157-58, 161-72, 174, 176; Otness, Harold M, One thousand westerners in Taiwan, to 1945: A biographical and bibliographical dictionary ([Taipei]: Institute of Taiwan History, Preparatory Office, Academia Sinica, 1999), p. 97; The Far East (1877): 89-90; Dictionary of American biography, p. 146. 17. Far East (1877): 90. 18. Yen 1965, pp. 154, 159, 163-173; Carrington 1978, p. 277; Dictionary of American biography, p. 146; Far East (1877): 93-94. 19. Yen 1965, pp. 175-82, 184-86, 191-97, 199-202, 204, 208-212, 216, 218, 246-249; Dictionary of American biography, p. 146; Far East (1877): 96-101; Otness 1999, pp. 97-98; Carrington 1978, pp. 279-80, 283. 20. Shavit 1990, p. 300. 21. Dictionary of American biography, p. 146; Shavit 1990, p. 300. 22. Otness 1999, p. 98; Yen 1965, p. 248; Shavit 1990, p. 300. 23. Dictionary of American biography, p. 146. 買屋網  .
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